Making Python dependency management reproducible is complicated. Bringing Python dependency management to mere mortals who can’t remember where they put their shoes, let alone remember to source shell scripts every time they start working on a project is even more complicated. So, here’s a quick breakdown of how it works followed by a much lengthier section on how to fit all of the various pieces together to manage a single Python dependency used to build a project.

How it Works

There are three primary components required for reproducing the runtime environment for a Python project.

Components of a Reproducible Python Runtime
Python Interpreter

The exact same version of the Python interpreter must be used. The Pyenv and asdf utilities provide a great solution for managing the version of the Python interpreter on a per-project basis.[1]

Virtual Environment

Virtual Python environments isolate installed Python packages from the rest of the system. The older virtualenv and more recent venv are used to create and manage these virtual environments. However, managing these manually with these tools is cumbersome. There are many different solutions for making these tools less taxing, including virtualenvwrapper, virtualfish, direnv, and more.

Python Packages

Each package and its exact version must be recorded. While the native Python package manager, pip, can do this with a requirements.txt file, there are some important ways in which this method is lacking. That’s why Pipenv, Poetry, and pip-tools use more robust methods of dependency management. The first two also manage virtual environments.

The tools recommended here assume a typical Unix-like shell on the command-line. Both Pipenv and Poetry work under Windows, and there is a port of pyenv to Windows, pyenv-win. Unfortunately, asdf and direnv are not available for Windows proper. Windows users can still access these tools through Multipass, WSL, Cygwin, and MSYS2.

How to Make it Work

The question that naturally follows this explanation is how in tarnation to make all this work?

First, you need something to manage the Python interpreter. You should probably use asdf. It can manage more runtimes than just Python, so polyglots don’t need to fuss with a million tools ending with "env" in their name, i.e. rbenv, goenv, etc.

For a minimal solution, it’s possible to just combine pip with either virtualenv or venv. You should also consider the pip-tools package which, while minimal, provides some nice benefits and eases dependency management with pip.

For a robust solution, use either Pipenv or Poetry. Poetry is a great fit for anyone wishing to package up and publish a Python project. On the other hand, Pipenv makes more sense for Python or mixed language projects which won’t produce their own Python packages.

Whichever solution you choose, for teams still consisting primarily of humans I recommend a wrapper to automatically configure a project’s virtual environment when entering the project directory on the command-line. The most compelling solution for this is direnv which supports the broadest range of shells and is simple to configure. For minimalists, direnv’s venv integration is quite appropriate. For developers only using the fish shell, I must recommend virtualfish for managing virtual environments. It’s fantastic. For Pipenv or Poetry, direnv offers support out-of-the-box.

If you choose to use both asdf and direnv, I highly recommend using the asdf direnv plugin. Not only does it make installing and controlling the direnv version a breeze but it will update executable shims for Python packages. No need to run asdf reshim manually after updating or removing Python packages which provide executables.

Users of the fish shell might be interested in an alternative to direnv for automating the Pipenv work flow. Check out the fish-pipenv plugin.

It’s probably only a small fraction of developers using the command-line for all their work. It’s important to take into account how well the tooling you choose integrates with IDE’s and code editors. These will need to be aware of the appropriate interpreter and virtual environment to use for your project. While it’s usually possible to configure these things manually, think humans, remember? Many IDE’s and code editors integrate well with setups using the built-in Python tooling. Pipenv boasts community-maintained extensions for several popular IDE’s and code editors. Even direnv works with many graphical editors through plugins.

For official, up-to-date information on this topic and related utilities, consult the Managing Application Dependencies tutorial and the Tool recommendations guide.

Tutorial

The genesis of this blog post is in incorporating a C++ package manager written in Python, Conan, into a C++ project, where reproducibility and ease-of-use are both important. This tutorial describes how to incorporate the Conan Python package in to a project via asdf, Pipenv, and direnv. The Python runtime is managed by asdf and the asdf Python plugin. Pipenv takes care of Conan and its dependencies as well as providing a virtual environment for the project. The last bits, direnv and the asdf direnv plugin, smooth out the rough edges for developers.

This tutorial uses Ubuntu 20.04 as the reference system, though these instructions should transfer relatively easily to any Unix-like platform. You should be familiar with Python, shells, Linux, and Git. Instructions are provided for fish, Bash, and ZSH.

The first section details how to install these tools, the second section describes the steps to configure a project, the third section describes how to initialize the environment for a previously configured project, and the last section of the tutorial describes how to handle updates for Python, Python packages, and these utilities. Without further ado, let’s begin.

Install

The instructions in this section will install asdf and Pipenv. Integration for direnv will also be added, even though it will be installed in either the Configure section or the Initialize section via asdf.

  1. Install the dependencies needed for asdf.

    sudo apt -y install curl git
  2. Pull down the asdf repository in to your home directory.

    ➜ git clone https://github.com/asdf-vm/asdf.git ~/.asdf
    Cloning into '/home/ubuntu/.asdf'...
    remote: Enumerating objects: 145, done.
    remote: Counting objects: 100% (145/145), done.
    remote: Compressing objects: 100% (85/85), done.
    remote: Total 5782 (delta 76), reused 93 (delta 59), pack-reused 5637
    Receiving objects: 100% (5782/5782), 1.09 MiB | 6.01 MiB/s, done.
    Resolving deltas: 100% (3293/3293), done.
  3. Checkout the latest version of asdf.

    fish
    ➜ git -C ~/.asdf switch --detach (git -C ~/.asdf describe --abbrev=0 --tags)
    HEAD is now at c6145d0 Update version to 0.8.0
    Bash / ZSH
    ➜ git -C ~/.asdf switch --detach $(git -C ~/.asdf describe --abbrev=0 --tags)
    HEAD is now at c6145d0 Update version to 0.8.0
  4. Enable asdf in your shell.

    fish
    mkdir -p ~/.config/fish/conf.d; and echo "source ~/.asdf/asdf.fish" > ~/.config/fish/conf.d/asdf.fish
    Bash
    echo '. $HOME/.asdf/asdf.sh' >> ~/.bashrc
    ZSH
    echo '. $HOME/.asdf/asdf.sh' >> ~/.zshrc
  5. Install shell completions for asdf.

    fish
    mkdir -p ~/.config/fish/completions; and ln -s ~/.asdf/completions/asdf.fish ~/.config/fish/completions
    Bash
    echo '. $HOME/.asdf/completions/asdf.bash' >> ~/.bashrc
    ZSH
    echo -e 'fpath=(${ASDF_DIR}/completions $fpath)\nautoload -Uz compinit\ncompinit' >> ~/.zshrc
  6. To make asdf available, reload your shell.

    fish
    exec fish
    Bash
    source ~/.bashrc
    ZSH
    source ~/.zshrc
  7. Install the necessary dependencies to build Python which are helpfully documented in the Pyenv Wiki.

    sudo apt -y install make build-essential libssl-dev zlib1g-dev libbz2-dev \
      libreadline-dev libsqlite3-dev wget curl llvm libncurses5-dev xz-utils \
      tk-dev libxml2-dev libxmlsec1-dev libffi-dev liblzma-dev
  8. Add the Python plugin to asdf.

    ➜ asdf plugin add python
    initializing plugin repository...
    Cloning into '/home/ubuntu/.asdf/repository'...
    remote: Enumerating objects: 2450, done.
    remote: Total 2450 (delta 0), reused 0 (delta 0), pack-reused 2450
    Receiving objects: 100% (2450/2450), 553.27 KiB | 3.57 MiB/s, done.
    Resolving deltas: 100% (1140/1140), done.
  9. Before installing Pipenv, configure the default global Python version for the user.

    You can use the system version of Python by default or another version of your choice.

    Whenever the user’s global version of Python is updated, Pipenv must be reinstalled which may require that all virtual environments be rebuilt.
    • Use the system’s Python as the default.

      1. Ubuntu installs Python as either python2 or python3 on the system.

        This means that asdf won’t be able to detect the system version of python. Install the Python package python-is-python3 to install a python executable for the system which uses python3.

        sudo apt -y install python-is-python3
      2. Install pip and venv because they are not installed by default on Ubuntu.

        sudo apt -y install python3-pip python3-venv
      3. Set the user’s Python to the system-wide version.

        ➜ asdf global python system
    • Or, you can use another version of Python for your user such as the latest and greatest version.

      1. Build and install the latest version of Python.

        ➜ asdf install python latest
      2. Set the user’s Python to the latest version available at this time.

        fish
        ➜ asdf global python (asdf latest python)
        Bash / ZSH
        ➜ asdf global python $(asdf latest python)
  10. Install pipx for installing Pipenv in an isolated environment.

    ➜ python -m pip install --user pipx
    Collecting pipx
      Downloading pipx-0.15.6.0-py3-none-any.whl (43 kB)
         |████████████████████████████████| 43 kB 636 kB/s
    Collecting argcomplete<2.0,>=1.9.4
      Downloading argcomplete-1.12.1-py2.py3-none-any.whl (38 kB)
    Collecting packaging>=20.0
      Downloading packaging-20.4-py2.py3-none-any.whl (37 kB)
    Collecting userpath>=1.4.1
      Downloading userpath-1.4.1-py2.py3-none-any.whl (14 kB)
    Collecting pyparsing>=2.0.2
      Downloading pyparsing-2.4.7-py2.py3-none-any.whl (67 kB)
         |████████████████████████████████| 67 kB 1.4 MB/s
    Requirement already satisfied: six in /usr/lib/python3/dist-packages (from packaging>=20.0->pipx) (1.14.0)
    Requirement already satisfied: click in /usr/lib/python3/dist-packages (from userpath>=1.4.1->pipx) (7.0)
    Requirement already satisfied: distro; platform_system == "Linux" in /usr/lib/python3/dist-packages (from userpath>=1.4.1->pipx) (1.4.0)
    Installing collected packages: argcomplete, pyparsing, packaging, userpath, pipx
      WARNING: The script userpath is installed in '/home/ubuntu/.local/bin' which is not on PATH.
      Consider adding this directory to PATH or, if you prefer to suppress this warning, use --no-warn-script-location.
      WARNING: The script pipx is installed in '/home/ubuntu/.local/bin' which is not on PATH.
      Consider adding this directory to PATH or, if you prefer to suppress this warning, use --no-warn-script-location.
    Successfully installed argcomplete-1.12.1 packaging-20.4 pipx-0.15.6.0 pyparsing-2.4.7 userpath-1.4.1
  11. Add the directory where pip installs executables for the local user to PATH.

    ➜ python -m pipx ensurepath
    Success! Added /home/ubuntu/.local/bin to the PATH environment
        variable.
    /home/ubuntu/.local/bin has been been added to PATH, but you need to
        open a new terminal or re-login for this PATH change to take
        effect.
    
    Consider adding shell completions for pipx. Run 'pipx completions' for
    instructions.
    
    You will need to open a new terminal or re-login for the PATH changes
    to take effect.
    
    Otherwise pipx is ready to go! ✨ 🌟 ✨
  12. To make executables installed by pipx available, reload your shell.

    fish
    exec fish
    Bash
    source ~/.bashrc
    ZSH
    source ~/.zshrc
  13. Install Pipenv.

    ➜ python -m pipx install pipenv
      installed package pipenv 2020.8.13, Python 3.8.5
      These apps are now globally available
        - pipenv
        - pipenv-resolver
    done! ✨ 🌟 ✨
  14. Add the direnv plugin to asdf.

    ➜ asdf plugin add direnv
  15. Integrate direnv with your shell.

    fish
    mkdir -p ~/.config/fish/conf.d; and echo "asdf exec direnv hook fish | source" > ~/.config/fish/conf.d/direnv.fish
    Bash
    echo 'eval "$(asdf exec direnv hook bash)"' >> ~/.bashrc
    ZSH
    echo 'eval "$(asdf exec direnv hook zsh)"' >> ~/.zshrc
  16. Make the asdf feature, i.e. the command use asdf, available in direnv.

    fish
    mkdir -p ~/.config/direnv; and echo 'source "$(asdf direnv hook asdf)"' >> ~/.config/direnv/direnvrc
    Bash / ZSH
    mkdir -p ~/.config/direnv; echo 'source "$(asdf direnv hook asdf)"' >> ~/.config/direnv/direnvrc
    The direnvrc file should only use Bash syntax.
  17. Add completions for Pipenv to your shell.

    fish
    echo "eval (pipenv --completion)" > ~/.config/fish/completions/pipenv.fish
    Bash
    echo 'eval "$(pipenv --completion)"' >> ~/.bashrc
    ZSH
    echo 'eval "$(pipenv --completion)"' >> ~/.zshrc

Configure

These instructions configure a project with a specific version of the Python interpreter, a specific version of direnv, and the versions of the Conan package and all of its dependencies. Additionally, automatic loading of the virtual environment is configured through direnv.

  1. Install asdf and Pipenv as described in the Install section.

  2. Create a directory for the project.

    mkdir -p ~/Source/MyProject
  3. Change into the root directory of the project.

    cd ~/Source/MyProject
  4. Initialize a Git repository for the project.

    ➜ git init
    Initialized empty Git repository in /home/ubuntu/Source/MyProject/.git/
  5. Install version of Python to use for the project.

    ➜ asdf install python latest
    Downloading python-build...
    Cloning into '/home/ubuntu/.asdf/plugins/python/pyenv'...
    remote: Enumerating objects: 19, done.
    remote: Counting objects: 100% (19/19), done.
    remote: Compressing objects: 100% (16/16), done.
    remote: Total 18370 (delta 3), reused 10 (delta 2), pack-reused 18351
    Receiving objects: 100% (18370/18370), 3.70 MiB | 5.98 MiB/s, done.
    Resolving deltas: 100% (12507/12507), done.
    python-build 3.9.0 /home/ubuntu/.asdf/installs/python/3.9.0
    Downloading Python-3.9.0.tar.xz...
    -> https://www.python.org/ftp/python/3.9.0/Python-3.9.0.tar.xz
    Installing Python-3.9.0...
    Installed Python-3.9.0 to /home/ubuntu/.asdf/installs/python/3.9.0
  6. Set the project’s version of Python.

    fish
    ➜ asdf local python (asdf current python | awk '{print $2}')
    Bash / ZSH
    ➜ asdf local python $(asdf current python | awk '{print $2}')
  7. Install the latest version of direnv.

    ➜ asdf install direnv latest
    ∗ Downloading and installing direnv...
    The installation was successful!

    If you haven’t set the default global version of direnv, now is a good time to do so.

    fish
    ➜ asdf global direnv (asdf latest direnv)
    Bash / ZSH
    ➜ asdf global direnv $(asdf latest direnv)
  8. Set the project to use the latest version of direnv.

    fish
    ➜ asdf local direnv (asdf latest direnv)
    Bash / ZSH
    ➜ asdf local direnv $(asdf latest direnv)
  9. The previous asdf local commands place version information in the .tool-versions file, so add this file to version control.

    ➜ git add .tool-versions
  10. Install Conan with Pipenv.

    ➜ pipenv install conan
    Creating a virtualenv for this project…
    Pipfile: /home/ubuntu/Source/MyProject/Pipfile
    Using /home/ubuntu/.asdf/installs/python/3.9.0/bin/python3 (3.9.0) to create virtualenv…
    ⠦ Creating virtual environment...created virtual environment CPython3.9.0.final.0-64 in 1681ms
      creator CPython3Posix(dest=/home/ubuntu/.local/share/virtualenvs/MyProject-6C2lAvdi, clear=False, global=False)
      seeder FromAppData(download=False, pip=bundle, setuptools=bundle, wheel=bundle, via=copy, app_data_dir=/home/ubuntu/.local/share/virtualenv)
        added seed packages: pip==20.2.4, setuptools==50.3.2, wheel==0.35.1
      activators BashActivator,CShellActivator,FishActivator,PowerShellActivator,PythonActivator,XonshActivator
    
    ✔ Successfully created virtual environment!
    Virtualenv location: /home/ubuntu/.local/share/virtualenvs/MyProject-6C2lAvdi
    Creating a Pipfile for this project…
    Installing conan…
    Adding conan to Pipfile's [packages]…
    ✔ Installation Succeeded
    Pipfile.lock not found, creating…
    Locking [dev-packages] dependencies…
    Locking [packages] dependencies…
    Building requirements...
    Resolving dependencies...
    ✔ Success!
    Updated Pipfile.lock (df42de)!
    Installing dependencies from Pipfile.lock (df42de)…
      🐍   ▉▉▉▉▉▉▉▉▉▉▉▉▉▉▉▉▉▉▉▉▉▉▉▉▉▉▉▉▉▉▉▉ 0/0 — 00:00:00
    To activate this project's virtualenv, run pipenv shell.
    Alternatively, run a command inside the virtualenv with pipenv run.
  11. Add both the Pipfile and Pipfile.lock files generated by Pipenv to version control.

    ➜ git add Pipfile Pipfile.lock
  12. In the root of the project directory, create the file .envrc with the lines use asdf and layout pipenv to automatically use both asdf and Pipenv.

    fish
    echo > .envrc "\
    use asdf
    layout pipenv"
    Bash / ZSH
    echo -e "use asdf\nlayout pipenv" > .envrc
  13. Add the .envrc file to version control.

    ➜ git add .envrc
  14. Reload your shell for direnv to be available.

    fish
    # fishexec fish
    direnv: error /home/ubuntu/Source/MyProject/.envrc is blocked. Run `direnv allow` to approve its content
    Bash
    source ~/.bashrc
    direnv: error /home/ubuntu/Source/MyProject/.envrc is blocked. Run `direnv allow` to approve its content
    ZSH
    source ~/.zshrc
    direnv: error /home/ubuntu/Source/MyProject/.envrc is blocked. Run `direnv allow` to approve its content
  15. Enable automatic loading of the project’s environment.

    ➜ direnv allow
    direnv: loading ~/Source/MyProject/.envrc
    direnv: using asdf
    direnv: Creating env file /home/ubuntu/.asdf/installs/direnv/2.23.1/env/3889178603-777313312-1073271181-2768066085
    direnv: loading ~/.asdf/installs/direnv/2.23.1/env/3889178603-777313312-1073271181-2768066085
    direnv: using asdf python 3.9.0
    direnv: using asdf direnv 2.23.1
    direnv: export +PIPENV_ACTIVE +VIRTUAL_ENV ~PATH
  16. Check that the virtual environment is automatically loaded and that the Conan executable resides within the virtual environment.

    ➜ which conan
    /home/ubuntu/.local/share/virtualenvs/MyProject-6C2lAvdi/bin/conan

Initialize

To initialize a previously configured project in a fresh environment, follow these steps.

  1. Install asdf, Pipenv, and the related direnv functionality as described in the Install section.

  2. Change to the project directory.

    cd ~/Source/MyProject
  3. Run asdf to automatically install Python and direnv.

    ➜ asdf install
    ∗ Downloading and installing direnv...
    The installation was successful!
    Downloading python-build...
    Cloning into '/home/ubuntu/.asdf/plugins/python/pyenv'...
    remote: Enumerating objects: 19, done.
    remote: Counting objects: 100% (19/19), done.
    remote: Compressing objects: 100% (16/16), done.
    remote: Total 18370 (delta 3), reused 10 (delta 2), pack-reused 18351
    Receiving objects: 100% (18370/18370), 3.70 MiB | 6.55 MiB/s, done.
    Resolving deltas: 100% (12507/12507), done.
    python-build 3.9.0 /home/ubuntu/.asdf/installs/python/3.9.0
    Downloading Python-3.9.0.tar.xz...
    -> https://www.python.org/ftp/python/3.9.0/Python-3.9.0.tar.xz
    Installing Python-3.9.0...
    Installed Python-3.9.0 to /home/ubuntu/.asdf/installs/python/3.9.0

    If you haven’t set a default global version of direnv, you should do so now.

    fish
    ➜ asdf global direnv (asdf list ruby | awk 'FNR <= 1')
    Bash / ZSH
    ➜ asdf global direnv $(asdf list ruby | awk 'FNR <= 1')
  4. Reload your shell for direnv to be available.

    fish
    exec fish
    direnv: error /home/ubuntu/Source/MyProject/.envrc is blocked. Run `direnv allow` to approve its content
    Bash
    source ~/.bashrc
    direnv: error /home/ubuntu/Source/MyProject/.envrc is blocked. Run `direnv allow` to approve its content
    ZSH
    source ~/.zshrc
    direnv: error /home/ubuntu/Source/MyProject/.envrc is blocked. Run `direnv allow` to approve its content
  5. Enable automatic loading of the project’s environment.

    ➜ direnv allow
    direnv: loading ~/Source/MyProject/.envrc
    direnv: using asdf
    direnv: Creating env file /home/ubuntu/.asdf/installs/direnv/2.23.1/env/3889178603-777313312-2662766433-906191085
    direnv: loading ~/.asdf/installs/direnv/2.23.1/env/3889178603-777313312-2662766433-906191085
    direnv: using asdf direnv 2.23.1
    direnv: using asdf python 3.9.0
    Creating a virtualenv for this project…
    Pipfile: /home/ubuntu/Source/MyProject/Pipfile
    Using /home/ubuntu/.asdf/installs/python/3.9.0/bin/python3.9 (3.9.0) to create virtualenv…
    ⠧ Creating virtual environment...direnv: ([/home/ubuntu/.asdf/installs/direnv/2.23.1/bin/direnv export bash]) is taking a while to execute. Use CTRL-C to give up.
    ⠦ Creating virtual environment...created virtual environment CPython3.9.0.final.0-64 in 1759ms
      creator CPython3Posix(dest=/home/ubuntu/.local/share/virtualenvs/MyProject-6C2lAvdi, clear=False, global=False)
      seeder FromAppData(download=False, pip=bundle, setuptools=bundle, wheel=bundle, via=copy, app_data_dir=/home/ubuntu/.local/share/virtualenv)
        added seed packages: pip==20.2.4, setuptools==50.3.2, wheel==0.35.1
      activators BashActivator,CShellActivator,FishActivator,PowerShellActivator,PythonActivator,XonshActivator
    
    ✔ Successfully created virtual environment!
    Virtualenv location: /home/ubuntu/.local/share/virtualenvs/MyProject-6C2lAvdi
    Installing dependencies from Pipfile.lock (df42de)…
      🐍   ▉▉▉▉▉▉▉▉▉▉▉▉▉▉▉▉▉▉▉▉▉▉▉▉▉▉▉▉▉▉▉▉ 26/26 — 00:01:09
    To activate this project's virtualenv, run pipenv shell.
    Alternatively, run a command inside the virtualenv with pipenv run.
    direnv: export +PIPENV_ACTIVE +VIRTUAL_ENV ~PATH
  6. Check that the virtual environment is properly setup and loaded, which can be verified by checking that the Conan executable resides within the virtual environment.

    ➜ which conan
    /home/ubuntu/.local/share/virtualenvs/MyProject-6C2lAvdi/bin/conan

Update

If you’re going to the trouble to make your Python runtime reproducible, then you are probably planning on updating different aspects of it. Steps for updating the various software components follow.

asdf

  1. Update asdf to the latest stable version.

    ➜ asdf update
  2. Update an individual asdf plugin by providing the plugin name to the asdf plugin update command or update all plugins at once by providing the --all flag as shown here.

    ➜ asdf plugin update --all

direnv

  1. Install the desired version of direnv.

    ➜ asdf install direnv latest
  2. Update the project’s version to reflect this newly installed version of direnv.

    fish
    ➜ asdf local direnv (asdf latest direnv)
    Bash / ZSH
    ➜ asdf local direnv $(asdf latest direnv)

Pipenv

There are two ways to go about upgrading Pipenv, depending on whether you want to update the global Python version. If the global Python version isn’t changing, just Update Pipenv. Otherwise, Upgrade the Global Python Version and Install Pipenv.

Update Pipenv

  1. Update pipx.

    ➜ python -m pip install --user -U pipx
  2. Update Pipenv.

    ➜ python -m pipx upgrade pipenv
If you want to upgrade all packages managed by pipx, just run pipx upgrade-all.

Upgrade the Global Python Version and Install Pipenv

  1. Build and install the newer version of Python.

    ➜ asdf install python latest
  2. Update the global Python version for the user.

    fish
    ➜ asdf global python (asdf latest python)
    Bash / ZSH
    ➜ asdf global python $(asdf latest python)
  3. Install pipx for installing Pipenv in an isolated environment.

    ➜ python -m pip install --user pipx
  4. Install Pipenv.

    ➜ python -m pipx install pipenv

Python

Update the project’s Python version with these instructions.

  1. Install the desired version of Python.

    ➜ asdf install python latest
  2. Set the Python version for the project to the desired version.

    fish
    ➜ asdf local python (asdf latest python)
    Bash / ZSH
    ➜ asdf local python $(asdf latest python)
  3. Wait while direnv and Pipenv automatically install dependencies and rebuild the virtual environment.

Python Packages

  1. Check for outdated Python packages with pipenv.

    ➜ pipenv update --outdated
  2. Update a single package by providing the name of the package or omit the package name to update all packages, as shown here.

    ➜ pipenv update

Conclusion

You should now have a thorough understanding of the requirements for reproducible dependency management in Python. Additionally, you also understand how to use several tools to accomplish this: asdf, direnv, and Pipenv.


1. The asdf Python plugin really just uses Pyenv underneath the covers.